Apr 11, 2014

The HUGE Hawaiian Raspberry

Rubus hawaiensis
Fruit at Puu Kole, Hawaii  
Photo credit: Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii
- Image licensed under a Creative Commons 
Attribution 3.0 License, permitting sharing 
and adaptation with attribution.
Hawaii has been eating raspberries for a long time. Early Hawaiians grew a variety known as Rubus hawaiensis also called ʻākala, which is the Hawaiian word for pink, referring to the color of the juice of this native raspberry. These plants grow up to 10 feet high, and bloom from April to July. Early Hawaiians used the ʻākala berries from this plant to produce a pink to rose-colored dye for kappa cloth. They also ate the huge tart berries, said to be the size of a small child's fist, and ranged in colors of salmon, pink, red, dark purple, yellow and white. These plants, endemic to Hawaii, are still found on the islands of Kaua'i, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i, in wet forests at high elevations from 1,970 feet to 10,070 feet. It is reported that this plant is still thriving in the upper Ko'olau Gap in Haleakala and Laupahoehoe Natural Area Reserve where it is a dominant member of the understory vegetation. This native Hawaiian raspberry plant is among the largest fruiting species in the world. The tasty fruits of the Rubus hawaiensis are still used in jams and pies today. To see more photographs of this huge Hawaiian raspberry, visit this site.

There are many introduced varieties of raspberries now growing in Hawaii. One of which is the Mysore raspberry, which grows in the tropics and is being harvested on the Big Island here in Hawaii. It has been in great demand by hotel chefs for decorative toppings on desserts and for producing sauces or glazes. This variety is not the typical red raspberry, but looks more like a blackberry. The fruit turns from red to purple and black when ripe. Fresh raspberries are also imported from the Mainland to Hawaii, and can also be purchased frozen as well. Raspberries are packed with vitamin C, folate, iron, and potassium. They are a very versatile fruit and can be used in a variety of ways. Here are a few recipes for you to try.

Raspberry Recipes:

Coconut Raspberry Energy Bars
Ingredients:
1 cup whole wheat flour
1 cup old-fashioned oats
1/2 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup toasted unsweetened flaked coconut
1/2 cup dark brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup coconut oil, melted
2 large egg whites
1 package (6 ounce or 1 1/3 cups) raspberries (fresh or frozen)

Procedure:
Preheat oven to 350°F. Line a 9 x 9-inch baking pan with parchment paper or aluminum foil, allowing an overhang on sides of pan.

Stir together whole wheat flour, oats, all-purpose flour, flaked coconut, sugar, nutmeg and salt until blended. Stir in coconut oil and egg whites until moist dough forms. Reserve 3/4 cup of dough. Press remaining dough into pan until evenly spread.

Mash raspberries in a separate bowl and spread over dough in pan. Crumble remaining dough and sprinkle on top of raspberry layer.

Bake 30 minutes or until golden brown. Let cool in pan 10 minutes. Transfer to cooling rack and let cool completely before cutting. Makes 12 servings.

Raspberry Summer Fruit Salad
Ingredients:
1 1/2 cups fresh raspberries, divided
1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
1/4 cup red-wine vinegar
1 small clove garlic, coarsely chopped
1/4 teaspoon kosher salt
1/8 teaspoon freshly ground pepper
8 cups mixed salad greens
1 ripe mango, diced
1 ripe avocado, diced
1/2 cup thinly sliced red onion
1/4 cup toasted sliced almonds or macadamia nuts

Procedure:
For the dressing, puree 1/2 cup raspberries, oil, vinegar, garlic, salt and pepper in a blender until combined.

For the salad, toast the nuts in a small dry skillet over medium-low heat until lightly browned, 2 to 3 minutes and set aside to cool. Next, combine greens, mango, avocado and onion in a large bowl. Pour the dressing on top and gently toss to coat. Divide the salad among 4 salad plates. Top each with the remaining raspberries and sprinkle with toasted nuts. Makes 4 servings.

Fish Tacos with Raspberry-Chipotle Mayonnaise
Ingredients:
6 ounces frozen raspberries
1 cup mayonnaise
1 to 2 chipotle chiles, chopped with seeds removed
1/4 teaspoons salt
1 avocado peeled and diced
2 large tomatoes diced
1/2 red onion sliced thin
3 tablespoons olive oil
4 garlic cloves, minced
4 - 4 ounces pieces maui-mahi, or opakapaka, bones removed
salt and pepper
8 corn tortillas, steamed in dampened paper towels in your microwave oven for 2 minutes

Procedure:
Puree raspberries in a blender until smooth. Stir together raspberry puree, mayonnaise, chiles and salt. Gently combine diced avocado, tomatoes, and onion, seasoned with salt and pepper, then and set aside. Mix olive oil with minced garlic. Place fish on a lightly oiled foil lined sheet pan and brush with olive oil/garlic mixture and seasoned with salt and pepper to your taste. Broil on high heat on the middle shelf of your oven until fish is cooked through (about 2 to 3 minutes per side). Break apart the fish with a fork into bite sized chunks. Spread some raspberry-chipotle mayonnaise on the inside of each steamed tortilla. Top with avocado mixture, and fish. Serve warm. Makes 4 servings of 2 tacos each.

Grilled Hoisin Chicken with Raspberry Sauce
Ingredients:
1 cup fresh or frozen raspberries
3/4 cup hoisin sauce (found in the Asian section of your supermarket)
5 tablespoons rice vinegar, divided
1 clove garlic
1 strip (2-by-1/2-inch) orange zest
1 tablespoon chopped fresh ginger
1/8 teaspoon freshly ground pepper
pinch of crushed red pepper
1 1/2 pounds boneless, skinless chicken thighs, trimmed, each cut into 3 crosswise strips
2 1/2 cups water
1 cup long- or medium-grain brown rice
1/3 cup thinly sliced scallion greens, divided

Procedure:
Combine raspberries, hoisin sauce, 3 tablespoons rice vinegar, garlic, orange zest, ginger, pepper and crushed red pepper in a blender or food processor. Blend or process until smooth, about 1 minute. Set aside 1/4 cup for a dipping sauce.

Transfer the remaining marinade to a medium bowl and add chicken; stir to coat. Cover and refrigerate for at least 2 hours and up to 24 hours.

Combine water and rice in a medium saucepan and bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat to a simmer and cook until most of the liquid has been absorbed, 40 to 50 minutes. Remove from the heat and let stand, covered, until ready to serve.

Preheat grill to medium-high or preheat the broiler to high.

Meanwhile, remove the chicken from the marinade, scrape off excess (discard marinade), and thread onto 4 skewers, distributing equally.

Grill the chicken until browned and cooked through, 3 to 4 minutes per side. If using the broiler, place the chicken on a broiler pan coated with cooking spray and broil 4 inches from the heat source until cooked through, about 5 minutes per side.

Just before serving, sprinkle the rice with the remaining 2 tablespoons vinegar and 1/4 cup scallions; fluff with a fork. Sprinkle the chicken and rice with the remaining scallions. Serve with the reserved dipping sauce. Makes 4 servings.

Raspberry Corn Muffins with Raspberry Cream
Ingredients for corn muffins:
1 cup all-purpose flour
3/4 cup cornmeal
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 large egg, beaten
1 cup reduced-fat sour cream
1/3 cup thawed, frozen unsweetened apple juice concentrate
1 1/2 cups frozen raspberries

Ingredients for raspberry cream:
2/3 cup reduced-fat whipped cream cheese
2 tablespoons raspberry preserves

Procedure:
Preheat oven to 350°F. Spray 12 (2 1/2-inch) muffin cups with nonstick cooking spray.

Combine flour, cornmeal, baking powder, baking soda and salt in small bowl. Whisk together egg, sour cream and apple juice concentrate. Add flour mixture into egg mixture. Stir just until dry ingredients are moistened. Do not over mix. Gently stir in raspberries.

Spoon batter into prepared muffin cups, filling each cup three-fourths full. Bake 18 to 20 minutes or until golden brown. Let stand in pan on wire rack 5 minutes. Remove from pan; cool slightly.

Combine cream cheese and preserves in a small serving bowl. Serve with warm muffins. Makes 12 servings.

Mango-Raspberry Pie
Ingredients for the crust:
1 1/4 cups whole-wheat pastry flour (see Note)
1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
2 tablespoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons cold unsalted butter
1/4 cup reduced-fat sour cream
3 tablespoons canola oil
4 tablespoons ice water

Ingredients for filling:
6 cups sliced peeled fresh or frozen mango
1 cup fresh or frozen raspberries
2/3 cup sugar, plus 1 teaspoon for sprinkling
1 tablespoon lemon juice
3 tablespoons cornstarch
1 large egg white, lightly beaten, for brushing

Procedure:
To prepare crust: Whisk whole-wheat flour, all-purpose flour, 2 tablespoons sugar and salt in a large bowl. Cut butter into small pieces and, with your fingers, quickly rub them into the dry ingredients until the pieces are smaller but still visible. Add sour cream and oil; toss with a fork to combine with the dry ingredients. Sprinkle water over the mixture. Toss with a fork until evenly moist. Knead the dough with your hands in the bowl a few times—the mixture will still be a little crumbly. Turn out onto a clean surface and knead a few more times, until the dough just holds together. Divide the dough in half and shape into 5-inch-wide disks. Wrap each in plastic and refrigerate for at least 1 hour.

Meanwhile, prepare filling: Combine mango, raspberries, 2/3 cup sugar and lemon juice in a large bowl; toss well to coat. Let stand for 5 minutes. Transfer the fruit mixture to a colander set over a medium bowl and let drain for 30 minutes. Pour the collected juice into a small saucepan. Return the fruit to the large bowl. Bring the juice to a boil over high heat and cook, gently swirling the pan, until reduced, syrupy and slightly darkened in color, 3 to 4 minutes. Add the syrup to the fruit along with cornstarch; gently toss until the cornstarch is completely dissolved.

To assemble & bake pie: Position a rack in the center of the oven and place a foil-lined baking sheet on the rack below; preheat to 375°F.

Remove the dough from the refrigerator; let stand for 5 minutes to warm slightly. Roll one portion between sheets of parchment or wax paper into a 12-inch circle. Peel off the top sheet and invert the dough into a 9-inch pie pan. Peel off the remaining paper. Trim the crust with kitchen shears or a butter knife so it overhangs the edge of the pan by 1 inch. Scrape the filling into the crust. Roll the remaining portion of dough between sheets of parchment or wax paper into another 12-inch circle. Peel off the top sheet of paper and invert the dough onto the fruit. Trim the top crust so it overhangs evenly. Tuck the top crust under the bottom crust, sealing the two together and making a plump edge. Flute the edge with your fingers. Brush the top and edge with egg white and sprinkle with the remaining 1 teaspoon sugar. Cut 6 steam vents in the top crust.

Bake the pie on the center rack until the crust is golden brown and the fruit is bubbling, 50 to 60 minutes. Let cool on a wire rack for at least 1 1/2 hours. Makes 10 servings.

Note: You can make the crust ahead of time (up to 2 days, if wrapped tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerated). The dough can be frozen for up to 6 months. Also, whole-wheat pastry flour is lower in protein than regular whole-wheat flour, has less gluten-forming potential, making it a better choice for tender baked goods. You can find it in the natural-foods section of large super markets and natural-foods stores. Store in the freezer.

Creamy Frozen Raspberry Pie
with Chocolate Wafer Crust
Ingredients:
32 chocolate wafer cookies, (about 6 1/2 ounces; see Note), plus 1 for garnish
1/4 cup confectioners' sugar
2 tablespoons canola oil
2 tablespoons skim milk
1 tablespoon butter

Ingredients for filling:
3 cups raspberries, fresh or frozen (thawed)
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1/4 teaspoon salt
2 large egg whites, at room temperature (see Tip)
1/2 cup granulated sugar
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

Procedure:
Preheat oven to 350°F. Coat a 9-inch pie pan with cooking spray.

To prepare crust: Process 32 wafers, confectioners' sugar, oil, milk and butter in a food processor until finely ground. Press the mixture into the bottom and up the sides of the prepared pan, creating an even, dense crust. Bake for 12 minutes. Cool on a wire rack to room temperature, about 1 hour, pressing any puffed parts of the crust back into the pan.

To prepare filling: Meanwhile, puree raspberries, lemon juice and salt in a blender or food processor until smooth. Strain through a fine-mesh sieve into a medium bowl, pressing with a rubber spatula to extract the juice; discard seeds.

Bring 1 inch of water to a slow simmer in a large saucepan. Combine egg whites, granulated sugar and cream of tartar in a 3-quart stainless-steel bowl. Beat with an electric mixer on medium speed until foamy. Set the bowl over the simmering water and continue to beat on medium speed, moving the mixer around, until the mixture is glossy and thick, about 3 1/2 minutes. Increase the speed to high, and continue beating over the simmering water until very stiff and glossy, about 3 1/2 minutes more (the eggs will be at a safe temperature, 160°F, at this point). Remove from the heat (be careful of the escaping steam) and continue beating on medium speed until room temperature, 3 to 5 minutes.
Fold the raspberry puree into the meringue until combined. Pour the raspberry filling into the pie crust; crumble the remaining chocolate wafer over the top. Place the pie on a level surface in your freezer and freeze until solid, at least 6 hours. To serve, let the pie stand at room temperature until softened slightly, about 10 minutes, before slicing. Makes 8 servings. 

Note: Look for Newman's Own Organics "Tops & Bottoms" or "Chocolate Alphabet Cookies" for your chocolate wafer cookies.

Raspberry-Tahitian Lime Pie
Ingredients:
1 package (10 ounces) shortbread cookies
2 tablespoons chopped crystalized ginger
3 tablespoons butter, melted
1 package (1/4 ounce packet) unflavored gelatin
1/4 cups cold water
1 cup canned sweetened cream of coconut (not coconut milk)
1/3 cups plain yogurt
1 teaspoon grated lime zest
1/4 cups fresh Tahitian lime juice (a variety of lime found in Hawaii)
24 ounces (5 1/3 cups) fresh raspberries
1 cup heavy cream
2/3 cups confectioners' sugar
2 tablespoons honey

Procedure:
Preheat oven to 350°F.

Process cookies and ginger in a food processer until finely ground. Blend in butter. Press into a 9 or 10-inch pie pan. Bake about 10 minutes or until golden brown. Cool on a wire rack.

Sprinkle gelatin over water in a medium metal bowl. Let stand until softened, about 5 minutes. Place bowl over a saucepan of gently simmering water and stir until gelatin is dissolved.

Combine cream of coconut, yogurt, lime zest and juice in a large bowl and stir until smooth. Stir in dissolved gelatin until thoroughly blended. Fold raspberries into lime-coconut filling. Pour into pie crust. Refrigerate 4 hours or until set.

Pulse remaining raspberries in blender or food processor until coarsely chopped. Pour through a strainer set over a bowl. Press hard on the solids to extract as much liquid as possible. Discard seeds
Whip cream with confectioners' sugar until stiff peaks form. Fold in half of raspberry purée.

Stir remaining raspberry purée, and honey together in a small bowl.

Serve wedges of pie drizzled with raspberry sauce and a dollop of raspberry whipped cream. 
Makes one 9 or 10 inch pie.

Red Wine Chocolate Cake 
with Raspberry Sauce
This is a rich decadent chocolate cake with the background flavor of red wine. Chocolate and red wine are wonderful together. The wine gives the cake an intensity and is best served thin. The final cake is only about 1 inch tall, and it bakes quickly. This is an adult cake, not for kids. It won't make you tipsy, but it will taste like there's wine in it. It's a beautiful cake to finish off a special meal, served with a tart raspberry sauce.

Ingredients:
6 tablespoons (85 grams) unsalted butter, at room temperature
3/4 cup (179 grams) firmly packed dark brown sugar
1/4 cup (50 grams) white granulated sugar
1 large egg + 1 large egg yolk, at room temperature
3/4 cup (177 ml) red wine, I use a burgundy
1 teaspoon (5 ml) vanilla extract
1 cup + 1 tablespoon (133 grams) all-purpose flour
1/2 cup (41 grams) Dutch cocoa powder
1/8 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon table salt
1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

fresh raspberries (optional) and powdered sugar for garnish

Ingredients for raspberry sauce:
2- 12 ounce bags (340 grams) frozen raspberries, thawed, drained and juice reserved
1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar, or to taste
4 tablespoons cornstarch
3 tablespoons orange flavored liqueur (I use Grand Marnier, a small airline bottle)
1 teaspoon of freshly squeezed lemon juice

Procedure:
Make the raspberry sauce first. Add enough water to reserved raspberry juice to measure 2 cups. In a saucepan, mix sugar and the cornstarch. Stir in juice and thawed raspberries. Heat to boiling over medium heat. Boil and stir 1 minute. Place a strainer over a bowl. Pour mixture through strainer, pressing with the back of a spoon, to remove seeds; discard seeds. Stir liqueur and lemon juice into mixture. Cover the sauce with plastic wrap, refrigerate until ready to serve.

Preheat the oven to 325°F. Line the bottom of a 9-inch round cake pan with parchment, and either butter and lightly flour the parchment and exposed sides of the pan, or spray the interior with a nonstick spray. In a large bowl, on the medium speed of an electric mixer, cream the butter until smooth. Add the sugars and beat until fluffy, about 3 minutes. Add the egg and yolk and beat well, then the red wine and vanilla. Don’t worry if the batter looks a little uneven. Sift the flour, cocoa, baking soda, baking powder, cinnamon and salt together, right over your wet ingredients. Mix until 3/4 combined, then fold the rest together with a rubber spatula. Spread batter in prepared pan. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes, or until a cake tester (toothpick) inserted into the center comes out clean. The top of the cake should be shiny and smooth, like a puddle of chocolate. Cool in pan on a rack for about 10 minutes, then flip out of pan and cool the rest of the way on a cooling rack. This cake keeps well at room temperature or in the fridge.

For serving, place a generous amount of sauce on each plate. Place one slice of cake in the middle of the sauce. Garnish the cake with fresh raspberries (optional) and dust the top with powdered sugar. Serve with coffee, or brandy. Makes 6 to 8 servings.

Note: Left over raspberry sauce (if there is any) can be used over ice cream, raspberry sherbet, or frozen yogurt, or in milkshakes. You can fold it into whipped cream for a topping over fresh fruit. It can be covered and stored in the refrigerator for up to one week, of freeze up to a year.

Berry Pudding with Yogurt Cream
Ingredients:
6 cups (about 6 half-pints) fresh or frozen (not thawed) raspberries
5 cups (about 1 1/2 quarts) fresh or frozen (not thawed) strawberries, trimmed
1/2 cup cornstarch
1/2 cup water
3/4 cup granulated sugar
1/4 cup whipping cream
2 teaspoons confectioners' sugar
1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract
3/4 cup nonfat plain Greek yogurt

Procedure:
Process raspberries and strawberries in batches in a food processor or blender until smooth. Transfer to a food mill or push through a fine sieve into a large measuring cup or bowl. Add enough water to the strained berries to equal 5 cups liquid.

Whisk cornstarch and water in a small bowl. Whisk the cornstarch mixture and granulated sugar into the strained berries and transfer to a Dutch oven or large saucepan. Cook over medium heat, whisking constantly (make sure to whisk the bottom well), until the mixture is very hot and beginning to bubble. Cook for 1 minute more, whisking constantly.

Transfer the pudding to a large bowl and let cool for 10 minutes. Press a piece of plastic wrap directly onto the surface and chill in the refrigerator for at least 2 hours (it will continue to thicken as it chills).

Whip cream in a small bowl until soft peaks form. Add confectioners’ sugar and vanilla; continue whipping until firm peaks form. Fold in yogurt. Serve the pudding with a dollop of cream on top. Makes 8, 1/2 cup servings.

Hot Spiced Raspberry Rum Cider
Ingredients:
12 ounces (2 2/3 cups) frozen raspberries
4 cups apple cider
4 dashes ground cinnamon
1/2 cup spiced rum (optional)
lemon twists for garnish

Procedure:
Set aside 8 to 12 raspberries for garnish. Place apple cider, remaining raspberries and ground cinnamon in a medium saucepan and bring to a boil. Heat until boiling, then let cool. Strain. Stir in spiced rum, if using.

Pour Raspberry Cider into coffee mugs. Drop in a lemon twist and garnish with 2 to 4 raspberries per mug. Makes 4 to 5 servings.
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